Services provided

Health Economics

Model Development
Early-phase to highly complex modeling. Our combination of technical and medical skills ensures the relevance of the model to key stakeholders - the backbone for writing up a compelling value-story.

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Market Access

Price & Reimbursement Roadmap
Always updated on recent developments in the access to markets through local insights of our native speakers of the Nordic languages.

Reimbursement Applications
In the business ever since the Pricing and Reimbursement boards in the Nordic countries were established. With a continuous flow of reimbursement projects we are abreast of trends and turns in an ever changing environment. Experience from >80 reimbursement applications provided to our clients.

Real Life Evidence

Broad and Narrow Scope Projects
Pharmacoepidemiological expertise and long-standing experience. Prospective studies, Retrospective studies, Small data-extraction projects, Large multi-data source studies. The scope depends on time and budget, but our methodological rigor is always the same.

Prospective studies

Piggyback studies. If a clinical study is designed so that data on resource use can be validly captured alongside the study, this provides an effective and inexpensive opportunity to gather data for health economic analysis. We offer our advice on the design of clinical study when incorporation of resource use data is desired.

Observational studies. Data on resource use can be gathered by observational studies of the clinical practice. No intervention occurs in the management of patients, allowing collection of data on effectiveness and resource use in a real-life setting.

Expert panels. Informed judgements from a group of experts can at times provide a relevant estimate on e.g. resource use in clinical practice, or on the expected outcome of a new medical treatment or technology.

In a Delphi panel, the experts’ opinions are systematically collected and collated in a series of rounds on specific questions or issues. Pre-specified study protocols ensure a high level of scientific validity.

A structured interview study is a simpler approach, where all information is collected in one round.

Retrospective studies

We conduct observational, retrospective research based on register data from national registries, disease-specific registries and electronic patient records.

Sweden has a long tradition of keeping individual-based registers with information on the health and social conditions of the population. Several of these registers were started many years ago and include data on all Swedish citizens. The registers may be linked using the personal identification numbers, which creates a unique opportunity to perform advanced studies of health care patterns and outcomes. We have extensive experience in conducting advanced studies on health care resource use, treatment patterns including compliance and outcomes of medical interventions in a real-life, nationwide setting.

Studies may also involve one or more of the other Nordic countries, since similar registers are available in all Nordic countries.

The work process

The diversity of projects and questions posed to us is substantial, meaning that stream-lined work process cannot be implemented. Rather, successful delivery is dependent on the creativity of our researchers. That said, there are common features between projects and some general strategies can be applied when a project is initiated.

The initial phase health economics project includes identification of the major cost and outcome drivers through early-phase modelling and literature research. Key questions are:

What do we know?

What do we not know?

What do we need to know?

If confident data are lacking for critical parameters of the health economics model, the generation of new evidence may be required. We have the experience and competence to select the appropriate method for effective generation of high-quality real-life data.

After collection of all relevant data, the early-phase model analysis is updated and further developed. A comprehensive health economic analysis is carried out, also including statistical considerations and alternative scenario analyses.

Dealing with uncertainty of data and results is an inherent part of a health economics evaluation, and the final report will include our judgement on the confidence of the results and the impact of the uncertainty in the actual project. In this matter, our long-standing experiences from dealings with governmental boards experience in the Nordic countries is a much valuable asset.